Interview 205a : In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, pharmacist and former Diboll School Board member Richard Albrecht discusses his tenure on the school board and the major issues of his day. The interview concentrates on the desegregation and integration of Diboll's schools and Mr. Albrecht discusses his reasons for running for school board, his interactions with the other board members and school administrators, as well as community members during the integration process.
Interview 001a: In this 1976 interview with Marge Shepherd, Ben Anthony remembers life as a real estate agent in Beverly Hills, California and his interactions with movie stars Jack Benny, Will Rogers, and Barbara Stanwyck. He also mentions his accomplishments as a shooter.
Interview 289a: In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, conducted by telephone, Diboll native Charles W. Armstead recounts his childhood and adolescence in Diboll and Lufkin. Mr. Armstead recalls segregation both in day-to-day life and schools in Angelina County. He also reflects on his relationship with Arthur Temple, Jr. and Mr. Temple’s influence in Mr. Armstead’s education and career. Mr. Armstead recalls his time working in Houston for Humble Oil and Gas Company and Temple Lumber Company. He briefly describes his work in advertising in New York. Of particular note is his recollection of his work for the Department of Defense regarding oil intelligence and his work selling oil to the government of South Africa in the 1980s. The interview concludes with his memories of his early life and the challenges he overcame.
Interview 38a : In this lengthy interview with Megan Lamber and An Sweeny, Inez Thompson Asher reminisces about living in Fastrill as a child. She remembers the houses, the people who lived there, the boarding house, the school, swimming in the Neches, and shopping in the commissary. Mrs. Thompson compares her years in Fastrill, Diboll, and Houston and recalls the Great Depression in Fastrill. She had a happy childhood and remembers Fastrill with fondness.
Interview 41a : Life-long Angelina County native and long-time Southern Pine Lumber Company employee Wesley Ashworth recalls how life in Diboll changed from 1922 to 1984. He remembers the Great Depression, the burning of the box factory, the changes Arthur Temple, Jr. made to Diboll when he came to town in 1948, and how Diboll has evolved from small sawmill town with dirt roads to a real city. For the most part, he approves of the changes to his home town and looks back with great happiness when recalling his over 48 years of service to Southern Pine Lumber Company.
Interview 168a : A 1965 graduate of Diboll High School, Bobby Baker tells interviewer Becky Donahoe of his career in public education as part of Donahoe's project of interviewing superintendents of Diboll Independent School District. Baker discusses his experiences as a life-long educator, including teaching, coaching, and administrating in East Texas public schools, including Lufkin, Diboll, Central, and Hemphill. Focusing on his Diboll years, Baker discusses a number of education subjects including student population growth as well as decline, capital improvements, campus relocation, working with school boards, evolving student population ethnicities, financial management, and standardized testing. Baker also shares biographical insight, including his Christian faith.
Interview 66a : In this interview with Sandra Ingram, Marvin Baker reminisces about the Baker and Fairchild family histories, attending school in Burke, helping his mother after the death of his father, and farming. He also discusses his time reforesting areas of East Texas with the C.C.C. during the Great Depression.
Interview 32a : Dewey Ballenger reminisces about life in Burke and Diboll from the beginning of the 20th century. He remembers Diboll's saloons, his mother's boarding house, riding the train, Emporia, Ryan's Chapel, the Calaboose, the Jail, and Jay Boren. He worked for Southern Pine Lumber Company for his entire career and watched as Diboll and the company changed. He also recalls the Methodist and Baptist churches, Clyde Thompson, and Mr. H.G. Temple.
Interview 32b : In this interview Dewey Ballenger reminisces about his years working for Southern Pine Lumber Company, especially Mills One, Two, and Three. He remembers the company's executives and their leadership styles: T.L.L. Temple, Arthur Temple, Jr., Watson Walker, H.G. Temple, and Clyde Thompson. He also recalls his mother's boarding house, The Beanery, living through the Depression, the Baptist Church, and the Methodist Church.
Interview 52a : In this interview with Sheila Billingsley, former firebrick salesman Arthur C. Beale remembers his time as a salesman calling on the forest products industry in East Texas. Mr. Beale sold firebricks, primarily for kilns, to Kurth mills and to the Temple mills in Diboll. He explains the use of firebricks and kilns and details the process of manufacturing lumber, from raw tree to finished product.
258a: In this interview with Carolyn Elmore, longtime Temple employees Dorothy Birdwell, J.D. Johnson, Yvonne Lewis, and Gene Beck reminisce about their career with Temple and the companies that preceded it. They talk particularly about the offices that were moved to Diboll after the merger with Time, Inc., including tax offices and land and timber offices in Hemphill and Jasper, former offices of Southwestern Settlement and Development and Houston Oil Company.
Interview 3a : Diboll Assistant Librarian Beulah Beidleman tells interviewer Becky Bailey about life during the Depression in Crowell, Texas and New London, Texas. She recalls the hard times, the way her family made ends meet, and the relief when she and her husband found steady jobs. The New London oil fields provided both hard times and work and she remembers the New London School explosion as well. She and her husband did not receive any poor relief during the Depression, but they did benefit from a small business loan.
Interview 295a: In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, Georgia native and forester Rex Benham reminisces about his life growing up in Georgia and his career in forestry in Texas. The 5th of 8 brothers, he remembers going to segregated schools and then going through integration, attending the University of Georgia as the first African American forestry student and graduating as the first African American with a forestry degree. He recalls moving to Texas and beginning his work as an inventory forester for Champion in Livingston and then moving around the area as his job and the company owners changed. He reflects on the changes in forest management practices, the nature of the forestry industry, and ownership, as well as being the only degreed African American forester with a private company in East Texas for much of his career.
Interview 237a : In this interview with R.L. Kuykendall and Rev. Bettie Kennedy, Celia Ann Sippio Boatwright reminisces about growing up as an African American girl in segregated Lufkin and Trinity County. She talks about her work in the church and the girls she mentored there. She also discusses the differences in child raising styles in the past and present days and her opinions on the children of the present day and their discipline problems.
Interview 294a: In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, Lufkin City Councilwoman Guessippina Bonner speaks about her life growing up in Fairfield, Texas and spending time in Mt. Enterprise, Texas. She remembers the stories her grandfather told about their family’s land and how they acquired an education from the segregated schools in this part of Texas. Dr. Bonner speaks about growing up in segregated East Texas, her family’s attitude toward education, and the strength of her family ties in the two communities. She tells about going to Dillard in New Orleans, one of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities in the southern United States. This is where she first experienced life in a major city and witnessed the effects of the civil rights movement first hand. From Dillard, Dr. Bonner speaks about her experiences teaching science in the Watts neighborhood in Los Angeles, Portland, Oregon, and Houston, Texas. She then recounts her time in Boston, Massachusetts working as a lobbyist with the National Education Agency and teachers’ unions. The interview concludes with her speaking about moving to Lufkin to care for her family, running for and serving on the city council, and her vision for helping North Lufkin and the city’s African American community overcome its challenges.
Interview 175a: In this short interview with Carolyn Elmore, John Booker discusses the layout of the Scrappin’ Valley clubhouse and the types of parties that were held there. He talks about hunting starting in the 1970’s and how company officials would entertain local officials and customers.
Interview 224a : In this extensive interview with Jonathan Gerland, East Texas native John O. Booker, Jr. reminisces about his life in East Texas and his time as a Prisoner of War in World War II. Mr. Booker speaks about growing up in Lufkin, his family's experiences in Diboll and Lufkin, and going to Lufkin schools. He also recalls his time at Texas A&M University, which led him to the Army Air Corps, where he became a pilot. He tells about flight training and the treacherous journey across the Atlantic, as well as about his missions over Germany. Shot down over Holland near the end of his tour, Mr. Booker was rescued by Dutch civilians, but was betrayed by his guide that was supposed to take him to Belgium and then France. The Germans took him to Amsterdam for interrogation and then he became a POW at Stalag Luft 1 near the Baltic Sea in Germany, from the Fall of 1943 until the Russians drove out the Germans in Spring 1945. After the war, Mr. Booker returned to East Texas, where he became an engineer for Southern Pine Lumber Company in Diboll. He worked on infrastructure projects in Diboll for several years and then moved to Pineland. He worked on infrastructure projects in Pineland at the mills and in the city and eventually became mayor, a post he held for 21 years.
Interview 224b: In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, John Booker, Jr. reminisces about his time building roads and bridges at Boggy Slough and tells stories about his family’s interactions with those who lived and worked there. Looking at 1926 and 1951 maps of the area, Mr. Booker talks about the landscape, the bodies of water and how they were dammed, and discusses the process for building roads through the forests. He mentions Charlie Harber, Arthur Temple, Jr., J.J. Ray, the Silvers Family, and Don Kenley. Mr. Gerland asks him about Black Cat Lake, cattle ranching, pasture riders, and the cowboys who once lived there.
Interview 150a : In this interview with Clara Breazeale, Nanny Breazeale reminisces about life in Alcedo, a Southern Pine Lumber Company logging camp. She remembers the boxcar houses, the outhouses, church, school, commissary, Dr. Evans, and Mrs. Bonner's boarding house.
Interview 150b : In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, Nannie Breazeale reminisces about Mrs. Fannie Farrington, the Diboll commissary, living at the Alcedo logging camp, swimming in the Neches River, picking cotton in West Texas, and working at the Diboll box factory. Mrs. Breazeale remembers the 1946 box factory fire and the speculation that it was related to union activities.
Interview 77a : Dana Copes Rogers and her daughter Margaret Rogers Bullock, descendants of the Copes family that owned the land that would later become Diboll, tell their memories of Copes family history and life in Diboll at the beginning of the 20th Century. Mrs. Rogers recalls her parents, attending church and school, Mable and Asenath Phelps, Copestown, and working for Franklin Farrington at the Diboll Post Office. Her husband worked in several drug stores in Diboll and Pineland before opening his own stores in Hemphill and Lufkin.
Interview 82a : Ward Burke reminisces about his personal history and his dealings with the Temple Foundation. He recalls assisting, as a lawyer, Arthur Temple and Temple Webber through all of the legalities of building up the Southern Pine Lumber Company. He also talks about mergers, liquor sale restrictions, and the effects of the Great Depression. Also mentioned are: Arthur Temple, Jr., Temple Webber, Arthur Lee Burke, Phillip M. Leach, and Georgie Temple Munz.
Interview 4a : Mrs. Beatrice Burkhalter reminisces about life in Diboll in the 1920s through the 1940s in this interview with Rebecca Bailey. A longtime educator, Mrs. Burkhalter talks about being a widow and single mother in the 1930s, attending college and working while mothering her son in an effort to earn a teaching certificate. She came to Diboll as a teacher in 1937 and eventually finished her bachelors degree in 1939. In addition to her teaching memories, Mrs. Burkhalter recalls the Depression, the beginnings of Social Security and the Teacher Retirement System, entertainment as a teenager, and Weeks family genealogy.
Interview 18b : In this group interview, Becky Bailey interviews Neil Pickett about his time as the Federal Housing Administration Director in Houston and his efforts to bring affordable public housing to Diboll, particularly the Walter Allen addition. He discusses the procedures for getting FHA loans and Mr. Arthur Temple's involvement in the large projects in Diboll, now owned by the Diboll Housing Authority. Beatrice Burkhalter, Fenner Roth, and Herbert Weeks also contributed to the interview
Interview 4b : Long-time Diboll resident and educator Beatrice Burkhalter reminisces for Sherri Sheridan about her school days in early Diboll. She recalls the separation of boys and girls, the 2 person desks, and that many of the wealthier families sent their children away for the last several years of their education. Mrs. Burkhalter recalled some of the pranks boys would play on the teachers and the long school days with long recesses. She was in the Diboll High School graduating class of 1922, the first class to graduate from Diboll.
Interview 4c : Long-time Diboll resident and educator Beatrice Burkhalter answers questions about Coan and Weeks family history and genealogy and remembers her early life. Her family moved around Texas and Louisiana before settling in Diboll, where her father worked in the sawmill and then for the Texas Southeastern Railroad. She recalls details about children lives in the early 20th century their chores and games in particular. She also talks about home remedies that families relied on in the absence of reliable medical care, such as asafetida, sulfa and grease, and castor oil.
Interview 85a : Longtime Temple employee Vernon Burkhalter reminisces about life in Diboll through the years. After growing up in Diboll as the son of a local teacher, Mr. Burkhalter worked his way up through the Company ranks as Personnel Director. He talks about growing up and starting work and then recalls all of the changes that have occurred in the company and the lumber industry. He is very complimentary of Arthur Temple, Jr. and Joe Denman and other company executives and credits the company's culture and management for balancing the respect for longtime employees and their knowledge with the need to mechanize and change processes and mentalities with the times.
Interview 85b : In an interview with Todd Kellam, Vernon Burkhalter reminisces about growing up in Diboll, going to school, hunting, fishing, and harvesting mayhaws. He also remembers working for Southern Pine Lumber Company during the summers while in high school, cleaning out ditches, cutting weeds, and painting fences. He compares the lives of teenagers today with life when he was in high school and notes positive and negative changes.
Interview 155a : In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, E.H. "Buddy" Bush, Jr. reminisces about growing up in Diboll and Newton and Lufkin and working for Temple-White, TexLam, and Deep East Texas Council of Governments. He talks about the Believe It Or Not Cafe, working for Paul Durham as photographer and film developer at The Free Press, and running Buddy's Cash Only store.
Interview 035a: In this interview, former Diboll schoolteacher and Superintendent E. H. Bush, Sr. and former teacher Fenner Roth reminisce about teaching school in Diboll during the 1930’s. They talk about discipline problems, dealing with the Great Depression, teacher and superintendent’s pay, and the heavy workload. Mr. Bush tells stories about disciplining students, coaching the basketball and baseball teams, and trying to keep the hogs away from the children as they ate lunch.
Interview 241a : In this short self-interview, Margie Lee Lacy Byrd reminisces about taking the train from Lufkin, stopping in the Lacy settlement, which was named for her great-grandfather, Elmer Lacy. She also describes the process to flag down the train so it would stop in Lacy for passengers. Her grandfather, Elmer Lacy, Jr. and her father, Raymond Lacy, both worked for the railroad.
Interview 202a : In this telephone interview with Patsy Colbert, Harold Cade reminisces about growing up in Diboll during segregation and attending Diboll's segregated black school. A 1944 graduate of H.G. Temple School, Mr. Cade joined the military and studied at Prairie View A&M University before becoming a life-long educator in other areas of Texas, particularly in cities along the south Texas Coast.
Interview 234a : In this interview in front of an audience at the Pinewood Park Apartments with Dickie Dixon and Reverend Bettie Kennedy, Emma Jones Callager talks about her childhood going to school in Lufkin, her experiences with her Ingram family relatives, and her work at her church, Long Chapel CME Church in Lufkin. She also discusses the Black church choirs, the years she spent teaching, her daycare center, Manning and Ewing schools, and her travels. She particularly mentions Will Ingram and several houses he built, the Hackneys, and other African American community leaders during segregation.
Interview 146a : In this interview with Becky Bailey, Diboll Independent School District Superintendent Dr. Gary Campbell talks about his teaching career in various East Texas and Houston area schools and then his progression to the position of Superintendent of Diboll. He talks about the need to work with the teachers, principals, and school board to raise the district's test scores, to update the curriculum and facilities, and utilize the district's money in a way that will benefit the students and teachers. He is especially excited about technology and computer upgrades for the classrooms.
Interview 193a : In this interview with Patsy Colbert, long-time Diboll teacher Billie Jean Capps reminisces about her 38 years in local education. The interview focuses on the integration of Diboll's schools, and Mrs. Capps discusses her experiences as an elementary teacher during that process. Mrs. Capps talks about Mr. Pate and the other administrator, the details involved with combining classes and teachers, and the attitudes of fellow teachers and parents. She mentions Odyessa Wallace and the Masseys, Valerie Anderson, and Odyessa Bray. Mrs. Capps grew up in the area and graduated from Diboll High School, and offers the perspective of someone who as observed the local schools as a student, teacher, and parent.
Interview 65a : In this interview with her granddaughter-in-law Billie Jean Capps, Mrs. Jewel Capps recalls life in Angelina County from the beginning of the 20th Century. She reminisces about taking care of her siblings, washing clothes outside by the creek, killing and preserving hogs, recreation, school, and discipline.
Interview 189a : In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, long-time Diboll Independent School District board member Marshall Capps reminisces about his 12-year tenure on the board, including the years of integration. Mr. Capps began his school board position when the Beulah Common School District consolidated with Diboll in 1962. Shortly thereafter, the Diboll board began the integration process with a Freedom of Choice plan. Mr. Capps remembers it to be a relatively painless process in which the board recognized that desegregation would happen and wanted to control the process in their town.
Interview 129a: The following text is not an interview, but commentary accompanying a slide presentation given by Shannon Capps. She describes historical photos of Diboll and then introduces Diboll citizens who tell their memories on various subjects such as housing conditions, schools, recreation, buildings, and the changes in the town over the years. Those giving their memories include Clyde Thompson, Dixie Cook, Willie Massey, O.W. Harrison, Geneva Sides Ard, Dewey Wolf, Jack Webb, Dale Grantham, Ruth Poland, and Opal Franks.
Interview 106a : In this interview with student Billy Kujala, Earl Carr recalls going to school in Diboll in the 1940s and 1950s. He talks about his teachers Mrs. Dixie Cook and Mrs. Beatrice Burkhalter, walking to and from school, his favorite subjects, and what he remembers of World War II and the Korean War as a child. He also touches on the differences between schools in the 1940s and the 1980s.
Interview 244a : In this interview with R.L. Kuykendall, Ellis Carrington, Sr., reminisces about his life as an African American man in Lufkin, Texas from 1922 to 2002. Mr. Carrington recalls going to school at Dunbar High School, quitting school and getting married, working for Lufkin Foundry and the railroad, surviving the Depression, and raising his family. Mr. Carrington talks about racial discrimination, segregated schools, life in Lufkin's African American Community throughout the 20th century, celebrations, businesses, and community leaders.
Interview 216a : In this interview with Patsy Colbert, long-time Diboll teacher Martha Carswell reminisces about her years teaching in Diboll, particularly during the racial integration of the schools. Mrs. Carswell taught for 44 years, starting in Lufkin and then moving to Diboll as a 5th and 6th grade teacher. She started in Diboll during Freedom of Choice and then stayed through full integration, with a few years off when her children were young. Mrs. Carswell remembers fellow teachers Mrs. Sibley, Mrs. Stubblefield, Mrs. Pate, and Mrs. Poland. She also remembers her principals Mr. Gartman and Mr. Porter.
Interview 5a : In this interview with Marge Shepherd, W.T. Carter Caton reminisces about growing up in Camden and working for the Carter Lumber Company until 1970 (with a short stint in Oregon during the late 1920s). He remembers helping the logging railroad convert from narrow gauge to standard gauge and refinishing some furniture for one of the Carter daughters.
Interview 104a : In a short 1954 interview with Clyde Thompson, Annie Chandler reminisces about her early life in Diboll. Her father was involved in Southern Pine Lumber Company's Diboll mill starting in 1895 and Mrs. Chandler spent the rest of her life in Diboll. She married and raised her children there. She remembers getting off the train in Diboll before there was a town. Mrs. Chandler's son, O'Hara was a longtime company executive, and two of her daughters, Rhoda Faye and Finney, worked in the office.
Interview 44a : Early Dibollians Fenner Roth, Herbert Weeks, and O'Hara Chandler, each born in or about 1908, tell of life in Diboll during the 1910s and 1920s during a 1984 interview by leaders of the Diboll Historical Society. The men recall railroad travel, eateries, childhood entertainments, early automobiles, alligators in the mill pond, school teachers, yard work, bitter weeds, and the communities of Emporia and Copestown. Persons discussed include Frank Farrington, Watson Walker, George Johnson, and John Oliver.
Interview 148a : In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, longtime educator O'Hara Chandler reminisces about growing up in and around Diboll, working at the sawmill, going to school, and teaching school all over the state. He recalls swimming in the Emporia millpond, Dred Devereaux and his bridges, and his family's time spent working for Southern Pine Lumber Company.
Interview 148b : In August, 1999, Howard Daniel asked O'Hara Chandler to speak to a meeting of the Diboll Rotary Club about his memories of growing up in Diboll. He talks about going to school in Diboll and leaving town for college, using checks at the company store, attending and participating in a traveling circus that stopped in town each year, and a traveling stack cleaner.
Interview 6a : Diboll native Rhoda Faye Chandler tells interviewer Becky Bailey about growing up in Diboll and working for Southern Pine Lumber Company as a young woman. Miss Chandler started working in the accounting office during the Depression for $35/week but was laid off after three months. She was rehired to work by the day (at $3.50/day) and ended up making more money that way than when she was on salary. She recalls the early days of electric service in Diboll, recreation for young people, going to Lufkin for the movies, Depression-era programs like the CCC and the WPA, and the SPLCo. payroll system.
Interview 6b : In this interview with Becky Bailey, Rhoda Faye Chandler, and her brother O'Hara Chandler recall life during the Depression and how Southern Pine Lumber Company took care of its employees and their families when times were hard. Miss Chandler describes going to the homes of Diboll residents in need to asses their situations so that the company could help them out after an accident or death, or when hard times made feeding and clothing a family difficult. She describes the care the company took to ensure that everyone had a home and enough food to eat, and how they worked with local churches and other citizens to care for each other.
265a: In this interview with Patsy Colbert, June Taylor Chapman reminisces about life as a junior high and high school student during racial integration at Diboll schools. As the first African American cheerleader, she was part of the integration of sports and extracurricular activities and has a unique the perspective of belonging to two worlds during that time. She recalls life at H.G. Temple before integration, attending the white school for the first time, being accepted by the other cheerleaders and their families, instances of racial discrimination and conflict at school, and how the races interacted in town. She speaks about Mr. and Mrs. Massey, Coach Porter, Mr. Ramsey, Arthur Temple, Jr., and Byrd Davis, in particular.
Interview 67a : In this interview with Diboll teacher Gayle Beene, Diboll native and life-long teacher Mary Jane Christian reminisces about growing up in Diboll, going to college at Stephen F. Austin State University, and teaching for 42 years. Mrs. Christian recalls her teachers and the school buildings, she remembers living through the depression and World War II, and she details how the teaching profession has changed throughout her 4-decade long career.
Interview 67b : In this interview with student Elvia Esteves, Mary Jane Christian recalls racial relations in the Diboll schools throughout her life. She grew up in Diboll when the schools were segregated and also began teaching before integration. Mrs. Christian remembers integration from the perspective of a teacher in the elementary school grades.
Interview 062a: In this interview with Becky Bailey, former Diboll town doctor J.C. Clement reminisces about his days as Diboll’s physician, moving to Lufkin, and the changes in the medical industry throughout his career. He recounts his early schooling and his introduction to Diboll and mentions many names of prominent citizens. He describes medical care facilities and practices and laments the changes since his career began. He also describes the town of Diboll, its people and buildings, and the changes it has seen over the years.
Interview 240a: In this interview with community leader R.L. Kuykendall, Howard Coleman reminisces about his life in Lufkin. He speaks about the Great Depression, Civilian Conservation Corps, race relations and discrimination, and some of the major families in Lufkin’s African American Community.
Interview 206a : In this interview with Patsy Colbert, Mr. Sam Coleman, Sr. reminisces about his life in Diboll. Mr. Coleman came to Diboll in 1966 and immediately became active in the community. In 1975 he was elected as the first African American member of the Diboll City Council. Throughout his tenure in Diboll, Mr. Coleman worked at the Fiberboard Plant and as a driver for the Temple family and was a manager at Boggy Slough. He volunteered for many community organizations, including Diboll Day, the Boy Scouts, Little League Baseball and the Boys and Girls Club. Mr. Coleman witnessed many changes in Diboll and his leadership helped smooth the integration process in various parts of the community.
Interview 220a : In this interview with Patsy Colbert, long-time teacher and Nacogdoches County native Dixie Cook reminisces about her life in the classroom in Diboll and Pasadena. She began teaching in Diboll at the request of Mr. Pate in 1943 before finishing her degree at Stephen F. Austin and continued to teach for 40 years, eventually finishing her bachelor's degree and earning a master's degree. Mrs. Cook talks about teaching in Diboll before racial integration and after integration, but during the process since she lived and taught in Pasadena at the time. She mentions Robert Cook, Lucille Cook, Jack Cook Sweeny, discipline in the classroom, Mr. Ramsey, O'Hara Chandler, Mr. Pate, Joe Paul Stovall, and her work with the American Diabetes Association.
Interview 188a : In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, Stacy Cooke reminisces about the 14 years he spent as a member of the Diboll Independent School District School Board. The interview focuses on the years 1966-1970, during the integration of Diboll's schools. He credits the board, the school administration, the teachers, the students, the local community, and Arthur Temple, Jr. for ensuring that Diboll experienced desegregation without many problems.
Interview 215a : In this interview with Jonathan Gerland and Richard Donovan, sisters Rose Frazier Corder, Wilhelmenia Frazier Hardy, and Arverta Frazier Mosely reminisce about their lives growing up in the southern Angelina County African American settlement of Boykin Settlement in the middle of the 20th century. They all attended the Vernon County Line School (near the Blue Hole) and then went on to have professions and higher education. Mrs. Mosely attended Prairie View College and became a teacher at Camp Nancy and then spent the rest of her career as a County Home Demonstration Agent or County Extension Agent. At first the office was segregated and she only worked with African American women, but in the 1960's and 1970's the offices were racially integrated and she taught all women to can and freeze food and other domestic skills. Mrs. Hardy moved to Houston and then Milwaukee, Wisconsin with her husband, where she attended cosmetology school and real estate school. She talks about the differences in culture and race relations in Milwaukee than in Houston and Boykin Settlement. Mrs. Corder moved to Milwaukee as a teenager to live with her sister Wilhelmenia, where she adapted to life in a school of 3000 students. She continued her education and became a nurse in Milwaukee and California, before returning to Lufkin. The Frazier sisters grew up in this African American community in a family of 13 children that all survived to adulthood. Their ancestors, the Runnels, were former slaves who settled in the area.
Interview 181a : In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, Ilene Cornick reminisces about her life as a World War II widow, member of the Red Cross, teacher, and member of the United States Army Special Services Branch. Mrs. Cornick's husband, Ray, died when his P-42 crashed in the North Sea in 1944. She joined the Red Cross the following year and traveled to Europe to run service clubs for American soldiers in Luxembourg and Germany. She taught school in San Augustine, Diboll, and Houston, and ran the YMCA in El Paso. Mrs. Cornick also traveled to Korea with the U.S. Army, where she taught at an international school and worked for the Special Services in the service clubs. While in Korea, Mrs. Cornick was acquainted with Syngman Rhee, the eventual President of Korea. She also worked for the Special Services in Japan, Saudi Arabia, and Germany.
Interview 245a : In this interview with R.L. Kuykendall and an unknown co-interviewer, Ollie Mae Courtney reminisces about growing up in Angelina County during the first half of the 20th Century. She talks about her family, attending Lufkin High School, farming in Lufkin, World War I, the Depression, World War II, and rationing. She also recalls her first ever car ride, and her father's businesses.
Interview 124a : Oleta Craft, owner of the Dress Craft clothing store, recalls working at the Mize Factory in Nacogdoches and opening her store in Diboll. She remembers how she built up her stock and gained loyal customers, dealt with salesmen, kept the store going when times were tough. She also recalls her encounter with a cross dresser who came to buy women's clothing at her store.
Interview 117a : Harold Crager recalls his entrance into the Air Force in 1948. He remembers signing up and shipping out to San Antonio, enduring basic training, and the skills he gained in those 13 weeks.
Interview 266a: In this interview with Jonathan Gerland and Richard Donovan, Zavalla, Angelina County native George Cryer reminisces about growing up in southern Angelina County. He talks about his father’s peckerwood sawmill, making crossties, working in the woods cutting timber, and the changes in the lumber industry for small producers in the middle of the 20th century. He talks about growing up in the Zavalla area, working for his father, hunting and fishing, the coming of the dams, the switch to chain saws, and working construction in the Beaumont area.
Interview 95a : Mrs. Ruth Currie reminisces about her life as a railroader's wife in White City, Fastrill, and Diboll. A native of Louisiana, Mrs. Currie followed her husband from one Southern Pine Lumber Company operation to another. In White City she lived in a boxcar house. When the White City camp closed, her family moved to Fastrill, where they lived until 1939. She fondly remembers her time in Fastrill and the closeness of the families that lived there. She also recalls the Depression and how if affected Fastrill.
Interview 228a : In this wide-ranging interview with Jonathan Gerland, native Lufkinite and long-time Love Wood Products employee Howard Daniel discusses his life in the forest products industry and his musical hobbies. Mr. Daniel started at Love Wood Products in 1957 and worked as the bookkeeper, salesman, and eventually the president before the company closed in 1985. He discusses their plants in Diboll, Waco, Teneha, and the Dallas area, as well as the mechanics of making wood flour. He talks about their different products, like wood flour for school desks and roofing products and miracle bark, to name a few. Mr. Daniel also reminisces about his love for music, particularly singing, which began in the 1940's while he was in the Navy and continued with the Los Angeles Philharmonic Chorale, the Seagle Colony, and choral training in New York. He also started the Temple choir that performed in Diboll at Christmas. Mr. Daniel also talks about the musical piece he is currently writing and his love of the piano.
Interview 48a : Entrepreneur J. Shirley Daniel came to Diboll in 1937 to open the town's first movie theater. Throughout his association with Diboll, he owned two different theaters, ran the Antler's Hotel, and worked as a pulpwood contractor. His first theater came to be known as "The Tonk" and the second theater was The Timberland Theater.
Interview 223a : In this interview with Jonathan Gerland and Richard Donovan, East Texas native Helen Darden reminisces about growing up as an African American girl in Deep East Texas before integration and the civil rights movement. Mrs. Darden grew up in an African American community that spanned the Angelina and Jasper County lines, centered around the Blue Hole and the Vernon County Line School. She recalls swimming in the Blue Hole, the mining efforts that took place there, and the nearby turpentine camp and community. She also discusses her relatives the Runnels family and her experiences finishing school in Houston in order to get a high school diploma.
Interview 142a : In this speech to the Angelina County Historical Forum, Marie Davis talks about the Diboll Historical Society's research process for finding the old Southern Pine Lumber Company logging camp Lindsey Springs. They eventually found the campsite, and will erect an historical marker.
Interview 137a : In this speech to the Angelina Historical Forum on May 9, 1995, Marie Davis presents the results of her research on Clark's Ferry, Clark's Cemetery, and Renova, all areas to the south of Diboll on the Neches River.
Interview 42a : In this interview with Megan Lambert and Edythe Weeks, Marjorie Pickle Davis reminisces about growing up in Diboll at the Star Hotel. Her father worked for the Texas Southeastern Railroad, but her mother, Ruth Estes Pickle, and grandmother, Emily Estes, ran the Star Hotel boarding house. She describes cooking and cleaning for the boarders, mostly Southern Pine Lumber Company workers from the time she was a young child.
Interview 282a: In this interview Jonathan Gerland speaks with former Temple Inland hardwood forester Norman Davis about his experiences with the company in the 1990’s. They discuss the condition of the hardwood bottomlands, the process of cutting these bottomlands, and the philosophy for managing hardwood bottomlands in East Texas. Mr. Davis talks about the hardwood management plan, the attitudes of company officials towards hardwood cutting (particularly Arthur Temple, Jr. and Jack Sweeny), the company’s foray into Eucalyptus farming in Mexico, and beaver trapping. They discuss Boggy Slough, in particular.
Interview 167a : In this interview with Patsy Colbert, Tuey McCarty Davis reminisces about growing up in Burke. She mentions attending school in the two-story school building in Burke, driving her father's Model-T car to school in Diboll and Lufkin, visiting the stores owned by Miss Ina McCall, the Courtney', and the Keel's and the Campbell's. She also mentions her grandfather Harvey Belote and his Burke sawmill, which closed before she was born.
Interview 254a: In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, Joe Deason reminisces about growing up in the Trinity County African American community of Nigton. He talks about his grandfather, his parents, going to the segregated school, attending Diboll’s segregated H.G. Temple School for high school and race relations. He mentions his brief visits to and experience with segregation in Lufkin, attending Prairie View A&M for college, and time in the military in Vietnam.
Interview 93a : In this interview with Marie Davis, long time Diboll resident Beth Denman talks about her life in Diboll from the 1950's to the 1980's. When her husband, Joe Denman, moved to Diboll to work for Southern Pine Lumber Company, she followed him and witnessed the town's change from dusty company town to thriving small city. She recalls the process to sell citizens their homes, paving the roads and fencing the livestock, all of the amenities and services the town had, and the sense of camaraderie and community that led to close friendships for children and adults.
Interview 79b : Joe C. Denman, Joe Denman and Carolyn Elmore discuss the origins Diboll Day and the Diboll Booster Club. Mr. Denman also talks about the beginnings of the plywood operations, land and timber management, and the failed Champion merger.
Interview 79a : Longtime Temple executive Joe Denman speaks with Megan Lambert about Temple company history. Mr. Denman recalls how he came to work for Arthur Temple, Jr. after graduating from Texas A&M University with a degree in architecture. He describes his rise through the company ranks, working in the offices, in the plants, and then as an executive. He also discusses the failed merger with Champion, the successful merger and spin-off with TIME, and other companies like Exeter, Sabine investments.
Interview 79c : In this speech to the Angelina County Historical Commission, Joe C. Denman, Jr. reminisces about his time as a Navy pilot during World War II. A member of the Navy football team in 1943, Mr. Denman earned his wings and trained as a Corsair pilot landing and taking off from carriers. He was never sent overseas, but stayed in the Navy after the war, graduating from Texas A&M and participating in Naval Reserve activities until the mid-1950's. Mr. Denman describes his training, his planes, and some of his experiences while in the Navy.
Interview 7a: In this 1954 interview with John Larson of the Forest History Society, Dred Devereaux, longtime head of the Texas Southeastern Railroad Buildings and Bridges Department, talks about the changes in logging practices and railroads during his tenure in the business, from about 1905 to the 1950’s. He talks about the changes in logging – from oxen to mules to machines and the changes in the railroads, from gauge sizes and manual labor to mechanized construction. He talks about working with Clyde Thompson, E.C. Durham, T.L.L. Temple, Arthur Temple, Sr. and Arthur Temple, Jr. of Southern Pine Lumber Company. Mr. Devereaux compares working conditions and pay and the quality of workers from the beginning to the middle of the 20th century. He describes the first crane used on TSE tracks and how he righted a wrecked locomotive with the help of longtime engineer Titus Mooney in 1937.
Interview 247a : In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, Frank Devereaux reminisces about his life growing up in Diboll and attending high school in Lufkin. He also describes his time in the Army Air Corps during World War II and playing high school football in Lufkin. Although a resident of Diboll, Mr. Devereaux moved to Lufkin in order to play football at Lufkin High School for legendary coach Abe Martin. After a short time in college, Mr. Devereaux joined the Army Air Corps and became a bombardier on a B-25 in the 12th Air Force, 380th Bomb Squadron, 310th Bomb Group based on the island of Corsica and then in Fano, Italy. Returning home from the war, he finished his degree and became a teacher and football coach in south and southeast Texas in the districts of West Columbia, Angleton, and Huffman, eventually becoming a school Superintendent and retiring as the Assistant Superintendent of the Cleveland, Texas schools. He also mentions the racial integration of Cleveland's schools.
Interview 238a : In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, Diboll native Jack Devereaux reminisces about growing up in Diboll, playing baseball, and attending school. Born in 1915, Mr. Devereaux played baseball as a child, in school for Diboll High School, and for the Diboll Millers. He mentions E.H. Bush, Joe Strauss, Morris Agee, Connie Albritton, Rankin Weatherby, and Frosty Davis. He also talks about his father, Dred Devereaux and his building projects for Southern Pine Lumber Company and the Texas Southeastern Railroad. Mr. Devereaux reminisces about some teenaged adventures in the various cars he owned, working for the TSE, and visiting family in various parts of East Texas.
Interview 72a : Diboll Family descendant C.C. Diboll talks about the Diboll family's lands and the sale of the lands that eventually became Diboll and its mills. He talks about family history, their land ownership, and their interaction with the Temple family.
285a: In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, Nigton (Trinity County, Texas) natives Leamon Ligon, Cleveland Mark, and Goldman Dixon reminisce about growing up in the Freedman’s community. They discuss family life, school, recreation, sports, race relations, and farming, among other topics. They also talk about their time in the military (Air Force and U.S. Marine Corps) and prominent musicians and sports figures to come out of Nigton and Diboll. Mr. Ligon also recalls his interactions with Diboll figure Jay Boren. People they mention include Willie Massey, Uncle York Ligon, Dogan Dixon, Professor Will Jackson, Arthur Temple, Jay Boren, and Jeff Carter.
Interview 199a : In this interview with Patsy Colbert, Johnnie Dixon reminisces about growing up in Diboll and attending Diboll Colored School and H.G. Temple School in the 1950's and 1960's before school integration. She remembers several of her teachers, including Inez Smith, Willie Ross, Mr. Jeffero, Mrs. Gilbert, and Mr. Massey. She also recalls Diboll Day and the segregated events, especially in 1964 when she was nominated as one of the Diboll Day Queen candidates for the African American community. After graduation, Mrs. Dixon worked in the Diboll schools for 36 years, starting out as an elementary school P.E. aid and eventually retiring in 2009 as the high school receptionist. Mrs. Dixon recalls going to The Family Affair club, The Timberland Theater, Joe Diamond's Café, and Pavlic's and Powell's grocery stores.
276a: In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, David Dolben recounts his career at Time, Inc., particularly his time spent in Diboll as an assistant to Arthur Temple, Jr. He describes the relationships between the New York and Diboll offices and the Diboll and Evadale operations, the problems they encountered, and the decisions they made, and the unique challenges presented by paper mill, the building products operations, and the media operations based in New York. He explains some of the reasons for Time’s acquisition of Temple and for the eventual spin-off. Mr. Dolben is particularly interested in describing Arthur Temple as a businessman and as a man, recounting stories about his interactions with people from all walks of life and his attitude toward business, his employees, and his family. In addition to Arthur, he mentions Mike Buckley, Andrew Heiskell, Charlie Stillman, Jim Shepley, Kenneth Nelson, Walter Stern, Mike Dingman, Earnest Grossman, Henry Holubec, Joe Denman, Harold Maxwell, and Lottie Temple.
Interview 178a : In this interview with Jonathan Gerland during a meeting of the Diboll Historical Society, Richard Donovan reminisces about his life in Angelina County and his work as an advocate for the area's rivers and forests. Mr. Donovan recalls growing up in Zavalla and spending his days hunting and fishing in the Angelina and Neches river bottoms. He also talks about working for Temple in Waco, Pineland, and Diboll and starting his Lufkin real estate business with his wife, Bonnie. Mr. Donovan spends most of the interview talking about his efforts as an advocate for the Neches River and the area's national forestlands. He mentions his canoe trips down the Neches, the need to have it declared a Wild and Scenic River, the damage caused by pollution, clear cutting, and replacing the native trees with non-native plantation trees, and the need for the public's awareness and efforts to stop dams like Fastrill and Rockland.
Interview 178b: In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, long-time Angelina County resident and conservationist Richard Donovan talks about his father, Allen T. Donovan, touching on his early career but focusing on his time at the Xact Clays and Magcobar mining operations near Zavalla. He talks about growing up in Zavalla, spending time at the plant with is father, a childhood accident, interactions with African Americans, and earning money as a child. Mr. Donovan also discusses the changes within southern Angelina County and East Texas at large, as the lumber companies moved in and changed the economy and the landscape and then left again. He talks about farming, hay baling, stock raising and the coming of the stock laws, types of trees, and race relations. Jonathan asks about the current state of the East Texas environment and problems with development and Mr. Donovan discusses these issues as well.
Interview 222a: In this informal interview with Jonathan Gerland, longtime Texas Southeastern Railroad employees and retirees Charles Foster, Gary Mike Smith, Don Harrison, George Honea, and Carroll Dover share memories of working for the shortline railroad in Diboll on the occasion of the railroad turning one hundred years old. Fond memories of working experiences and various personalities are recalled. Some of the people remembered are C.A. Jordan, R.A. “Boots” Jackson, W.J. “Professor” Jackson, Odair Womack, Willard Conner, and Jimmie Beth Durham.
Interview 9a : In an interview with Vivian Holt, Diboll City Manager James Dover explains his job responsibilities and the relationship between the mayor, city council, and city manager. He briefly touches on some of Diboll's problems and his hopes for the city's future.
Interview 71a : In this interview with Becky Bailey shortly after beginning his tenure as Superintendent of Diboll Schools, Jim Dunlop talks about his educational background, his experience as an educator, and his hopes and plans for Diboll's schools. Mr. Dunlop taught at Central School from 1969 to 1971, when he moved to Diboll as Civics, P.E., and History teacher. He moved through administrative positions, holding the title of "Director of Special Projects" for 15 months, Elementary School Principal, Business Manager, and Superintendent. He was concerned with Diboll's school facilities, the teachers' working conditions, and providing a quality education for Diboll's children with the money he was given.
Interview 212a : In this interview with Patsy Colbert, friends Mark Shepherd and Bruce Durham reminisce about their Diboll school days. As 5th graders, Shepherd and Durham experienced the racial integration of Diboll schools. They recall very few problems with integration, and as children, just accepted that it was happening. The sons of community leaders (Mark Shepherds parents were C.H. and Margorie Shepherd; Bruce's parents were Paul and Jimmie Beth Durham), they were expected to behave in school and treat all students and teachers with respect. Both men were involved in sports and played on integrated teams from Junior High through High School. They were especially complimentary of the African American teachers that came into their lives after integration, especially Coach Porter and Mr. Massey.
Interview 70a : In this interview with Marie Cochran, Estelle Eddington reminisces about her life spent in Angelina County. She was born in Nogalis Prairie in Houston County, but her family moved to Lufkin soon after. Through her growing up years she also lived in Ratcliff and back in Lufkin near Ellen Trout Lake. She recalls life during the Depression and during World War II as a young married woman. In 1960, the Eddingtons moved to Diboll, where she worked for Albrecht's Pharmacy, and she briefly talks about the changes in Diboll from the 1960's to 1980's.
Interview 122a : Elodie Miles Edwards recalls her life as a child growing up in Diboll and her time teaching in Diboll as a young woman. Mrs. Edwards remembers Fannie Farrington, who gave her a coat and a dress for graduation, and all of her teachers. She also remembers the flu epidemic, riding in a car for the first time, and playing baseball with the boys at school. Mrs. Edwards went to college in Rusk and Huntsville, and eventually taught in Diboll for six years. After her marriage to Grady Edwards, she moved with him to Baytown, where she continued to teach for many years.
Interview 226a : In this interview with Jonathan Gerland, Lufkin native Rayford Faircloth reminisces about growing up in Lufkin and working for the Temple Companies throughout his career. He started as the first Temple building material salesman in Arkansas and then went to work for Horace Stubblefield at Sabine Investment Company in the late 1960's. As part of Sabine, Mr. Faircloth helped develop the company's properties in Diboll and Pineland (including the golf course), the area surrounding lakes Sam Rayburn and Toledo Bend, and most notably, Crown Colony in Lufkin. He was involved in developing all parts of those areas, including business, residential, golf course, and country club. He talks about working for Arthur Temple, Jr., dealing with the Corps of Engineers at the lakes, and developing a master planned golf course community and all that entailed. He also mentions Ben Anthony, Clyde Thompson, and golf course design firm Von Hagge Devlin.
Interview 104a : In a 1954 interview with Clyde Thompson, longtime Temple employee Eddie Farley reminisces about working for Southern Pine Lumber Company and the Temple family in Diboll, Pineland, and Hemphill. Mr. Farley was a shipping clerk and later a shipping superintendent in each of the Temple operations. He speaks about T.L.L. Temple, Arthur Temple, Sr., Henry Temple and Katherine Sage Temple.
Interview 11a : In this 1954 interview with John Larson of the Forest History Foundation, Fannie Farrington (1876-1967) tells of her experiences in Diboll beginning in 1903, when she and her husband moved there from St. Louis to work in the Southern Pine Lumber company commissary. Mrs. Farrington was extremely active in developing the community's early educational, social, and spiritual life and discusses the Temple family's philanthropy, the schools, churches, and town leaders. She also comments on early recreation and amusements, politics, and World Wars I and II.